The development and management of human resources is a national and social priority of great importance, requiring a maximum concentration of efforts and pursuing a comprehensive, focused and consistent government policy, as well as the unification and coordination of actions of the authorities, institutions, and structures of civil society. central, regional and local levels.
It is well known that the economic, social, cultural and other achievements of many countries are mainly due to the high level of education and qualification of the population and the good health of their peoples. At the same time, there are examples that show that, even if human resources possess the necessary quantitative and qualitative characteristics for the realization of upward economic development, they are not able to automatically provide the desired economic and social progress. They can play an important role only in combination with the other factors that have brought back economic development.
That is why an active state policy is needed to provide this combination and the right conditions for action of the complex of factors. It should aim at creating an economic, social, institutional and cultural environment that, along with the educational, qualification and health environment, create an appropriate climate for the development of human capital. In the process of integration with the world organizations and in the conditions of globalization, these conditions become more necessary and to some extent obligatory for the implementation of the strategy and policy of catching up economic development.
The formation of human capital is a complex and lengthy process that must be managed in accordance with the principles of public policy directed at human resources. The latter must be able to withstand the challenges of time and, at the same time, become a decisive factor for economic prosperity. The need to define the concepts of “human capital” and human resources is dictated by their particular importance for socio-economic development. Their importance and role in the context of the transition throughout the world have been recognized in the preparation of a number of documents at the national level, and especially in connection with the preparation of documents for our country’s accession to the European Union.
The link between human capital, human resources and economic development is too narrow and, in a sense, two-way. Investments in human capital are fundamental and determining the direction and dynamics of human resources development. Their volume and focus are of paramount importance for the formation of human resources that meet modern requirements.
In a knowledge-based economy, in line with the goals set by the Lisbon European Council in March 2000 for a more competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy, human capital and its most important component are becoming a major factor of economic development. In the new socio-economic conditions, the high quality of human capital is at the heart of improving the competitiveness of the economy.
The concept of lifelong training for people is a prerequisite for increasing human capital, improving its quality and its effective use. In recent years, the human resources management function has been transformed into human capital management. The development and improvement of human capital must be the subject of attention from both the state and business. The interest is one-way and is directly related to investment in human capital in order to achieve accelerated economic development and increase the competitiveness of the economy.
In this sense, investment in human capital should be subject to long-term planning that reflects the medium- and long-term view of economic development, short-term investments in the form of training courses, sporadic healthcare financing, and other long-term investment decisions do not bring the desired result. Investments in human capital should be the result of the implementation of long-term policies and should be directed to education, health, science, culture, etc. that have the most direct involvement in the formation of human resources.